Durante s√©culos as pessoas tem se frustrado pela falta de uma l√≠¬≠ngua internacional. Um franc√™s gasta tempo aprendendo Alem√£o, somente para perceber que ele n√£o pode conversar com um americano que est√° estudando espanhol, e nem falar com um russo que est√° terminando a faculdade de chin√™s. Todos eles est√£o de certo modo perdendo tempo! Se tivesse uma √ļnica l√≠¬≠ngua que todos eles pudessem aprender!
Para resolver isto, muitas l√≠¬≠nguas artificias foram usadas: o Esperanto com adjetivos in√ļteis e finais estranhos, a Interl√≠¬≠ngua, e muito mais. Mas nada pegou.
Ent√£o em 1930, C.K.Ogden prop√īs uma vers√£o curta do Ingl√™s: com somente 850 palavras que poderiam ser aprendidas em poucos meses e usadas para dizer qualquer coisa. Eles chamaram Ingl√™s B√°sico (Basic English - BE).
Existiam muitas vantagens: haviam j√° centenas de milhares de falantes nativos de ingl√™s e tamb√©m outras pessoas que estudaram. A gram√°tica inglesa √© inteiramente livre de g√™neros no final das palavras, quase livre de finais que mudam a palavra (case endings), e quase livre de conjuga√ßoes (talk, talks, talked, will talk, has talked, talking -- contra 50 formas da cada verbo em Espanhol/Portugu√™s por exemplo). Entretanto, existem alguns verbos irregulares (am-is-ar-were-be-being-been) contra livros deles em Espanhol/Portugu√™s. Por isto ingl√™s foi declarado a l√≠¬≠ngua mais f√°cil de aprender, ao menos para o uso cotidiano.
As pessoas ficaram entusiasmadas. Foi demonstrado que praticamente tudo poderiam ser dito em poucas palavras -- romances e artigos cientiificos foram escritos em Ingl√™s B√°sico. CHurchill e Roosevelt concordaram em ajudar nisso. Estrangeiros entenderam que eles poderiam aprender-lo t√£o r√°pido quanto divulgado. Eles gostaram muito (exceto pela escrita, que Ogden se recusou a reformar.) O Mundo percebeu que ao inv√©s de gastar anos aprendendo uma l√≠¬≠ngua estrangeira que iria permiti-lo se ccomunicar com somente um povo, eles poderiam ent√£o gastar 3 meses neste sistema e assim falar com o mundo inteiro. Que promessa √≥tima!
Mas Churchill incumbiu isto para o comit√™ do governo que era de incompetentes e isto n√£o deu certo. Mas n√£o inteiramente -- podemos ainda obter livros sobre isto nas bibliotecas.
Eu queria reviv√™-lo! Um dos grandes problemas com qualquer ideia de Ingl√™s Internacional √© a triste escrita inglesa que n√£o concorda com o modo que as palavras s√£o pronunciadas. Assim que memorizar a escrita pode pensar que a pron√ļncia √© aquela e sair dizendo K-nife e K-now. E aqueles que n√£o conhecem a escrita escreveriam "nife" e "no", e ser v√≠¬≠tima de zombas. Gerorge Bernard Shaw tentou estimular Ogden a reforma na escrita/ortografia no sistema mas ele se recusou, dizendo que uma mudan√ßa por vez era o suficiente e que se os leitores escrevessem de uma forma nova e reformada poderiam ser considerados ignorantes.
Listas de Palavras em Ingl√™s B√°sico
Basic: a , able, about, account, acid, across, act, addition, adjustment, advertisement, agreement, after, again, against, air, all, almost, among, amount, amusement, angle, animal, answer, and, angry, ant, any, apparatus, apple, approval, arch, argument, arm, army, art, as, at, attack, attempt, attention, attraction, authority, automatic, awake .
Intl: alcohol , Algebra , aluminum , ammonia , anesthetic , April , Arithmetic , asbestos , August , autobus , automobile .
Next: abdomen , absence , absorption , acceleration , acceptance , accessory , accident , active , address , adjacent , adventure , advice , age , agent , agency , ago , allowance , along , also , alternative , always , ambition , amplitude , anchor , ankle , appendage , application , approximation , arbitration , arbitrary , arc , area , arrangement , ash , asset , assistant , average , awkward , axis .
Compound: afterthought, airplane, another, anybody, anyhow, anyone, anything, anywhere .
Endings: actor, acting .
Basic: baby, back, bad, bag, balance, ball, band, base, basin, basket, bath, be, beautiful, because, bed, bee, before, behavior, belief, bell, bent, berry, between, bird, birth, bit, bite, bitter, black, blade, blood, blow, blue, board, boat, body, bone, book, boot, boiling, bottle, box, boy, brain, brake, branch, brass, bread, breath, brick, bridge, bright, broken, brother, brown, brush, bucket, building, bulb, button, burn, burst, business, but, butter, by.
Intl: ballet , Bang , bank , bar , beef , beer , Biology , bomb .
Next: balcony , bale , bankrupt , bark , barrel , beak , beaker , beard , beat , behind , belt , bet , bill , birefringence , blame , blanket , both , bottom , brave , break, breakfast , breast , broker , bubble , bud , budget , buoyancy , bunch , burial , busy .
Compound: backbone, backwoods, become, bedroom, beeswax, birthday, birthright, blackberry, blackbird, blackboard, bloodvessel, bluebell, bookkeeper, brushwood, buttercup .
Endings: basing, based , builder , burner, burned, burning .
Basic: cake, camera, canvas, card, care, carriage, cart, cat, cause, certain, chain, chalk, chance, change, cheap, cheese, chemical, chest, chief, chin, church, circle, cloth, clean, clear, clock, cloud, coal, coat, cold, collar, color, comb, come, comfort, committee, common, company, comparison, competition, complete, complex condition, connection, conscious, control, cook, copper, copy, cord, cork, cotton, cough, country, cover, cow, crack, credit, crime, cruel, crush, cry, cup, current, curtain, curve, cushion, cut.
Intl: cafe , calendar , catarrh , centi- , champagne , chauffeur , chemist , Chemistry , check , chocolate , chorus , cigarette , circus , citron , club , coffee , cocktail , cognac , College , colony .
Next: calculation , call , capacity , capital , carpet , cartilage , case , cast , cave , cavity , cell , ceremony , certificate , chair , character, charge , child , chimney , china , choice , circulation , circuit , circumference , civilization , clay , claim , claw , cleavage , clever , client , climber, clip , code , coil , collision , collection , column , combination , combine , communications , complaint , component , compound , concept , concrete , conductor , congruent , conservation , consignment , constant , consumer , continuous , contour , convenient , conversion , cool , corner , correlation , corrosion , cost , court , creeper , crop , cross , cunning , cusp , customs .
Compound: cardboard, carefree, caretaker, clockwork, commonsense, copyright, cupboard .
Endings: carter, clothier, clothing , cooker, cooked, cooking , crying.
Basic: damage, danger, dark, daughter, day, dead, dear, death, debt, decision, deep, degree, delicate, dependent, design, desire, destruction, detail, development, different, digestion, direction, dirty, discovery, discussion, disease, disgust, distance, distribution, division, do, dog, door, down, doubt, drain, drawer, dress, drink, driving, drop, dry, dust.
Intl: dance , December , deci- , degree , Dominion , dynamite .
Next: damping , date , debit , deck , decrease , defect , deficiency , deflation, degenerate , delivery , demand , denominator , department , desert , density , deposit , determining, dew , diameter , difference , difficulty , drift, dike , dilution, dinner , dip , direct, disappearance , discharge, discount, disgrace , dislike , dissipation, disturbance, ditch , dive , divisor , divorce , doll , domesticating , dreadful , dream , duct , dull , duty .
Compound: daylight, downfall .
Endings: dancer, dancing (to) , designer, dressing (up), driver , dropped, dropper , duster.
Basic: ear, early, earth, east, edge, education, effect, egg, elastic, electric, end, engine, enough, equal, error, even, event, ever, every, example, exchange, existence, expansion, experience, expert, eye.
Intl: eight , electricity , eleven , Embassy , Empire , encyclopedia , engineer .
Next: each , easy , economy , efficiency , effort , either , elimination , employer , empty , enemy , envelope , environment, envy , equation , erosion, eruption , evaporation , evening , exact , excitement , experiment, exercise , explanation , explosion , export , expression , extinction , eyebrow , eyelash .
Compound: ear-ring, earthwork, evergreen, everybody, everyday, everyone, everything, everywhere, eyeball .
Basic: face , fact , fall , false , family , far , farm , fat , father , fear , feather , feeble , feeling , female , fertile , fiction , field , fight , finger , fire , first , fish , fixed , flag , flame , flat , flight , floor , flower , fly , fold , food , foolish , foot , for , force , fork , form , forward , fowl , frame , free , frequent , friend , from , front , fruit , full , future .
Intl: February , fifteen , fifth , fifty , five , four , fourteen , fourth , forty , Friday .
Next: factor , failure , fair , famous , fan , fastening , fault, ferment, fertilizing , fever , fiber, figure , fin, financial , flash , flask , flesh , flood , flour , focus , forecast , forehead , foreign , forgiveness , fraction , fracture , fresh , friction, flint , flood , flow , foliation , frost , frozen , fume , funnel , funny , fur , furnace , furniture , fusion .
Compound: fatherland, fingerprint, firearm, fire-engine, firefly, fireman, fireplace, firework, first-rate, football, footlights, footman, footnote, footprint, footstep .
Endings: farmer , fisher(man) , folder , fired, firing.
Basic: garden , general , get , girl , give , glass , glove , go , goat , gold , good , government , grain , grass , great , green , grey/gray , grip , group , growth , guide , gun .
Intl: gas , Geography , Geology , Geometry , gram , glycerin .
Next: gate , generation , germ , germinating , gill, glacier , gland, god , grand , grateful , grating , gravel , grease , grief , grocery , groove , gross, ground , guard , guarantee, guess , gum .
Compound: gasworks, goldfish, goodlooking, good-morning, goodnight, gunboat, gun-carriage, gunmetal, gunpowder .
Endings: gardener .
Basic: hair , hammer , hand , hanging , happy , harbor , hard , harmony , hat , hate , have , he , head , healthy , hearing , heart , heat , help , here , high , history , hole , hollow , hook , hope , horn , horse , hospital , hour , house , how , humor .
Intl: half , hiss , hotel , hundred , hyena , hygiene , hysteria .
Next: habit , handkerchief , handle , heavy , hedge , hill , hinge, hire , hold , holiday , home , honest , honey , hoof , host , human , hunt , hurry , hurt , husband .
Compound: handbook, handwriting, headdress, headland, headstone, headway, hereafter, herewith, highlands, highway, himself, horseplay, horsepower, hourglass, houseboat, housekeeper, however .
Endings: hanger, heater, heated, heating .
Basic: I , ice , idea , if , ill , important , impulse , in , increase , industry , ink , insect , instrument , insurance , interest , invention , iron , island .
Intl: Imperial , inferno , influenza , international .
Next: igneous , image , imagination , import , impurity , inclusion , index , individual , inflation , infinity , inheritance , innocent , institution , insulator , integer , intelligent , intercept, interpretation , intersection, intrusion , investigation , investment , inverse , invitation .
Compound: inasmuch, income, indoors, inland, inlet, input, inside, instep, into, itself .
Basic: jelly , jewel , join , journey , judge , jump .
Intl: January , jazz , July , June .
Next: jam , jaw , jealous , jerk , joint , jug , juice , jury , justice .
Endings: jeweler , joiner .
Basic: keep , kettle , key , kick , kind , kiss , knee , knife , knot , knowledge .
Intl: kilo- , King .
Next: kennel , kidney , kitchen , knock
Endings: keeper .
Basic: land , language , last , late , laugh , law , lead , leaf , learning , least, leather , leg , less, left , let , letter , level , library , lift , light , like , limit , line , linen , lip , liquid , list , little , living , lock , long , loose , loss , loud , love , low .
Intl: latitude , lava , liter , liqueur , longitude .
Next: lace , lag , lake , lame , lamp , large , latitude, lawyer , layer, lazy , lecture , legal , length, lens , lesson , lever , lever , liability , license , lid , life , lime , limestone, link, liver , load , local , load , loan, locus , look , longitude , luck , lump , lunch , lung .
Compound: landmark, landslip, lighthouse, looking-glass .
Endings: laughing (at), learner , locker, locking (up).
Basic: machine , man , manager , make , male , map , mark , market , married , match , material , mass , may , meal , measure , meat , medical , meeting , memory , metal , middle , military , milk , mind , mine , minute , mist , mixed , money , monkey , month , moon , more, morning , most, mother , motion , mountain , mouth , move , much , muscle , music .
Intl: macaroni , madam , magnetic , malaria , mania , March , Mathematics , May , meter , meow , micro- , microscope , milli- , million , minute , Monday , Museum .
Next: magic , magnitude, manner , many , marble , margin , marriage , mast , mattress , mature , mean , meaning , medicine , medium, melt , member , mess , message , metabolism , mill , mineral , mixture , model , modern , modest , momentum , monopoly , mood , moral , moustache , mud , multiple , multiplication , murder .
Compound: manhole, myself .
Endings: marked , miner .
Basic: nail , name , narrow , nation , natural , near , necessary , neck , need , needle , nerve , net , new , news , night , no , noise , normal , north , nose , not , note , now , number , nut .
Intl: neutron , nickel , nicotine , nine , November .
Next: nasty , nature , navy , neat , neglect , neighbor , nest , next , nice , node , nostril , nucleus , numerator, nurse .
Compound: network, newspaper, nobody, nothing, nowhere .
Endings: noted .
Basic: observation , of , off , offer , office , oil , old , on , only , open , operation , opinion , opposite , or , orange , order , organization , ornament , other , out , oven , over , owner.
Intl: October , olive , once , omelet , one , opera , opium , orchestra , organism .
Next: obedient , officer , orchestra , ore, organ , origin , outcrop, outlier, overlap , oval , own , oxidation .
Compound: offspring, oncoming, oneself, onlooker, onto, outburst, outcome, outcry, outdoor, outgoing, outhouse, outlaw, outlet, outline, outlook, output, outside, outskirts, outstretched, overacting, overall overbalancing, overbearing, overcoat, overcome, overdo, overdressed, overfull, overhanging, overhead, overland, overleaf, overloud, overseas, overseer, overshoe, overstatement, overtake, overtaxed, overtime overturned, overuse, overvalued, overweight, overworking .
Basic: page , pain , paint , paper , parallel , parcel , part , past , paste , payment , peace , pen , pencil , person , physical , picture , pig , pin , pipe , place , plane , plant , plate , play , please , pleasure , plough/plow , pocket , point , poison , polish , political , poor , porter , position , possible , pot , potato , powder , power , present , price , print , prison , private , probable , process , produce , profit , property , prose , protest , public , pull , pump , punishment , purpose , push , put .
Intl: pajamas , paraffin , paradise , park , passport , patent , penguin , petroleum , phonograph , Physics , Physiology , piano , platinum , police , post , potash , President , Prince , Princess , program , propaganda , Psychology , Purr , pyramid .
Next: packing, pad , pair , pan , paragraph , parent , particle , partner , party , passage , path , patience , pedal , pendulum , pension , people , perfect , petal , piston , plain, plan, plaster , plug , poetry , pollen, pool , population , porcelain , practice , praise , prayer , pressure, prick , priest, prime , probability , product, progress , projectile , projection , promise , proof , proud , pulley , pupil , purchase , pure .
Compound: pincushion, plaything , policeman, postman, postmark, postmaster, postoffice.
Endings: painter, painting , parting , playing, played , pleased (with) , pointer, pointing (at) , potter , printer , prisoner , producer,
Basic: quality , question , quick , quiet , quite .
Intl: Quack , quarter , Queen , quinine .
Next: quantity , quotient.
Basic: rail , rain , range , rat , rate , ray , reaction , red , reading , ready , reason , receipt , record , regret , regular , relation , religion , representative , request , respect , responsible , rest , reward , rhythm , rice , right , ring , river , road , rod , roll , roof , room , root , rough , round , rub , rule , run .
Intl: radio , radium , referendum , restaurant , rheumatism , Royal , rum .
Next: race , radiation, ratio, reagent , real , receiver , reciprocal , rectangle , recurring , reference , reflux , reinforcement , relative , remark , remedy , rent , repair , reproduction , repulsion , resistance , residue , resolution , result , retail , revenge , reversible , rich , rigidity , rise, rival , rock , rot , rotation , rude , rust .
Compound: runaway .
Endings: raining, reader, reading , roller , ruler , rubber ,
Basic: sad , safe , sail , salt , same , sand , say , scale , school , science , scissors , screw , sea , seat , second , secret , secretary , see , seed , selection , self , send , seem , sense , separate , serious , servant , sex , shade , shake , shame , sharp , sheep , shelf , ship , shirt , shock , shoe , short , shut , side , sign , silk , silver , simple , sister , size , skin , skirt , sky , sleep , slip , slope , slow , small , smash , smell , smile , smoke , smooth , snake , sneeze , snow , so , soap , society , sock , soft , solid , some , son , song , sort , sound , soup , south , space , spade , special , sponge , spoon , spring , square , stage , stamp , star , start , statement , station , steam , steel , stem , step , stick , sticky , stiff , still , stitch , stocking , stomach , stone , stop , store , story , straight , strange , street , strong , structure , substance , such , sudden , sugar , suggestion , summer , sun , support , surprise , sweet , swim , system .
Intl: salad , sardine , Saturday , second , September , serum , seven , sir , six , sixteen , sport , Sunday .
Next: sac , sale , sample , satisfaction , saturated , saucer , saving, scale , scarp , schist , scratch , screen , seal , search , security , secretion , section, sedimentary , selfish , sensitivity , sentence , sepal , service , set , shadow , shale, share, shave , shear, sheet , shell , shore , shoulder , show , sight , sill , similarity , since , skull , slate , sleeve , slide , social , soil, soldier , solution , solvent , sorry , spark , specialization, specimen , speculation , spirit , spit , splash , spot , stable , stain , stair , stalk , stamen , statistics , steady , stimulus, storm , strain , straw , stream , strength , stress , strike , string , study , subject , substitution , subtraction, success , successive, sucker , sum , supply , surface , surgeon , suspension, suspicious , swelling, swing , switch , sympathetic .
Compound: seaman, secondhand, shorthand, sideboard, sidewalk, somebody, someday, somehow, someone, something, sometime, somewhat, somewhere, suchlike, sunburn, sunlight, sunshade, sweetheart .
Endings: sailor , shocking, shocked, snowing , steamer, stopper, stopping (up) , stretcher,.
Basic: table , tail , take , talk , tall , taste , tax , teaching , tendency , test , than , that , the , then , theory , there , thick , thin , thing , this , though , thought , thread , throat , through , thumb , thunder , ticket , tight , tired , till , time , tin , to , toe , together , tomorrow , tongue , tooth , top , touch , town , trade , train , transport , tray , tree , trick , trousers , true , trouble , turn , twist .
Intl: tapioca , taxi , tea , telegram , telephone , ten , terrace , theater , thermometer , third , thirteen , thirty , thousand , three , Thursday , toast , tobacco , torpedo , Tuesday , turbine , twenty-one , twelve , twenty , twice , two .
Next: tailor , tame , tap , tear , tent , term, texture , thickness , thief , thimble , thorax, threat , thrust , tide , tie , tissue , tongs , too , total , towel , tower , traffic , tragedy , transmission , transparent , trap , travel , treatment , triangle , truck , tube , tune , tunnel , twin , typist .
Compound: today, tonight, tradesman .
Endings: talking (of), teacher , touching (up) , trader , trainer , training, troubling, troubled , turning (over) .
Basic: umbrella , under , unit , up, use .
Intl: university .
Next: ugly , unconformity, understanding , universe , unknown .
Compound: underclothing, undercooked, undergo, undergrowth, undermined, undersigned, undersized, understatement, undertake, undervalued, undo, upkeep, uplift, upon, upright, uptake .
Endings: used (to) .
Basic: value , verse , very , vessel , view , violent , voice .
Intl: vanilla , violin , visa , vitamin , vodka , volt .
Next: valency , valley , valve , vapor , variable, vascular, vegetable , velocity , vestigial , victim , victory , volume , vortex, vote .
Compound: viewpoint .
Basic: walk , wall , waiting , war , warm , wash , waste , watch , water , wave , wax , way , weather , week , weight , well , west , wet , wheel , when , where , while , whip , whistle , white , who , why , wide , will , wind , window , wine , wing , winter , wire , wise , with , woman , wood , wool , word , work , worm , wound , writing , wrong .
Intl: Wednesday , whisky .
Next: weak , wedge , welcome , whether , wholesale , widow , wife , wild , world , wreck , wrist .
Compound: waterfall, weekend, well-being, well-off, whatever, whenever, whereas, whereby, wherever, whichever, whitewash, whoever, windpipe, within, without, woodwork, workhouse .
Endings: waiter , worker, working (on, out, up), writer , waiting, wasted .
here are five main parts to the Basic English word list: created by C.K. Ogden
The 100 operators are:
come get give go keep let make put seem take be do have say see send may will about across after against among at before between by down from in off on over through to under up with as for of till than a the all any every no other some such that this I he you who and because but or if through while how when where why again ever far forward hear near now out still there then together well almost enough even little much not only quite so very tomorrow yesterday north south east west please yes
The 400 general things are:
account act addition adjustment advertisement agreement air amount amusement animal answer apparatus approval argument art attack attempt attention attraction authority back balance base behaviour belief birth bit bite blood blow body brass bread breath brother building burn burst business butter canvas care cause chalk chance change cloth coal colour comfort committee company comparison competition condition connection control cook copper copy cork cotton cough country cover crack credit crime crush cry current curve damage danger daughter day death debt decision degree design desire destruction detail development digestion direction discovery discussion disease disgust distance distribution division doubt drink driving dust earth edge education effect end error event example exchange existence expansion experience expert fact fall family father fear feeling fiction field fight fire flame flight flower fold food force form friend front fruit glass gold government grain grass grip group growth guide harbour harmony hate hearing heat help history hole hope hour humour ice idea impulse increase industry ink insect instrument insurance interest invention iron jelly join journey judge jump kick kiss knowledge land language laugh law lead learning leather letter level lift light limit linen liquid list look loss love machine man manager mark market mass meal measure meat meeting memory metal middle milk mind mine minute mist money month morning mother motion mountain move music name nation need news night noise note number observation offer oil operation opinion order organization ornament owner page pain paint paper part paste payment peace person place plant play pleasure poison point polish porter position powder power price print process produce profit property prose protest pull punishment purpose push quality question rain range rate ray reaction reading reason record regret relation religion representative request respect rest reward rhythm rice river road roll room rub rule run salt sand scale science sea seat secretary selection self sense servant sex shade shake shame shock side sign silk silver sister size sky sleep slip slope smash smell smile smoke sneeze snow soap society son song sort sound soup space stage start statement steam steel step stitch stone stop story stretch structure substance sugar suggestion summer support surprise swim system talk taste tax teaching tendency test theory thing thought thunder time tin top touch trade transport trick trouble turn twist unit use value verse vessel view voice walk war wash waste water wave wax way weather week weight ind wine winter woman wood wool word work wound writing year
The 200 picturable things are: angle ant apple arch arm army baby bag ball band basin basket bath bed bee bell berry bird blade board boat bone book boot bottle box boy brain brake branch brick bridge brush bucket bulb button cake camera card carriage cart cat chain cheese chest chin church circle clock cloud coat collar comb cord cow cup curtain cushion dog door drain drawer dress drop ear egg engine eye face farm feather finger fish flag floor fly foot fork fowl frame garden girl glove goat gun hair hammer hand hat head heart hook horn horse hospital house island jewel kettle key knee knife knot leaf leg library line lip lock map match monkey moon mouth muscle nail neck needle nerve net nose nut office orange oven parcel pen pencil picture pig pin pipe plane plate plough pocket pot potato prison pump rail rat receipt ring rod roof root sail school scissors screw seed sheep shelf ship shirt shoe skin skirt snake sock spade sponge spoon spring square stamp star station stem stick stocking stomach store street sun table tail thread throat thumb ticket toe tongue tooth town train tray tree trousers umbrella wall watch wheel whip whistle window wing wire worm
The 100 qualities are: able acid angry automatic beautiful black boiling bright broken brown cheap chemical chief clean clear common complex conscious cup deep dependent early elastic electric equal fat fertile first fixed flat free frequent full general good great grey hanging happy hard healthy high hollow important kind like living long male married material medical military natural necessary new normal open parallel past physical political poor possible present private probable quick quiet ready red regular responsible right round same second separate serious sharp smooth sticky stiff straight strong sudden sweet tall thick tight tired true violent waiting warm wet wide wise yellow young
The 50 opposites are: awake bad bent bitter blue certain cold complete cruel dark dead dear delicate different dirty dry false feeble female foolish future green ill last late left loose loud low mixed narrow old opposite public rough sad safe secret short shut simple slow small soft solid special strange thin white wrong
The rules are: plurals as usual with '-s'or '-es' nouns with '-er', such as plant -> planter nouns with '-ing' such as plant -> planting adjectives with '-ed' such as plant -> planted adverbs with '-ly' such as quick -> quickly negation with 'un-' such as common -> uncommon compound words such as wastebasket and chalkboard When you have the thought =