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Introdução

O que são heteronimos?

Heteronimos são palavras que são escritas do mesmo modo mas tem significados diferentes.

Por exemplo:

Lead, pronunciado LEED, significa to guide (guiar). E, lead, pronunciado LED, significa um metal/cobre.

Compare heteronimos a homografos, homofonos, e homonimos.

Homografos são palavras que são escritas do mesmo modo mas diferem no significado, origem, ou pronuncia.

Homofonos são palavras que são pronunciadas do mesmo modo mas diferem na origem ou escrita. Ex.: We e Wii

Homonimos são palavras que são escritas e pronunciadas do mesmo modo mas tem diferente significado. Existe divergencias.

Heteronimos são tipos especificos de homográfos em que as diferentes pronuncias está ligada com o diferente significado. Muitos heteronimos são resultado de uma pronuncia sendo para o verbo e a outra para substantivo.

As of 1/1/99, we have begun listing words only, without pronunciations and meanings, and the acknowledgment immediately follows.



Heterônimos

Affect ehFEKT- to change; AFFekt- a person's feelings or emotion (1)

Alternate ALternit- the next choice; ALternait- switch back and forth (9)

Are AHR- plural present tense of "to be"; AIR- 100 square meters (1/100th of a hectare) [although may also be pronounced AHR] (15)

Ares AIRS- 100 square meter units [plural]; AIReez- Greek god of war [capitalized] (15)

Attribute ahTRIByoot- to consider resulting from; AHtribyoot- a characteristic of someone (12)

August AUgust- month [capitalized]; auGUST- important, eminent (9)

Axes AKsiz- more than one ax or axe; AKseez- the plural of axis (13)

Bass BASE- a string instrument; (rhymes with mass)- a fish (1)

Bow BAU- to lower one's head or the front of a ship; BOH- used to shoot arrows (7)

Bowed BAU-d- to bend over; BOH-d- bent (12)

Buffet BUFFet- to pound or bump; booFAY- place where you serve yourself (9)

Close CLOZE- to shut; CLOS- near (9)

Combine komBYNE- put together; KOMbyne- a threshing machine (1)

Conduct KONduckt- behavior; kunDUCKT- to lead (see this heteronym below) (12)

Conflict kunFLIKT- to act against; KAHNflict- a fight or disagreement (1)

Console KAHNsole- an upright case; kunSOLE- to comfort (2)

Content KAHNtent- meaning; kunTENT- satisfied (1)

Contest kunTEST- to argue; KAHNtest- a match of skill (1)

Contract CONtract- an agreement; conTRACT- to shrink or to agree on a project (2)

Convert conVERT- to change one's belief; CONvert- one whose belief was changed (11)

Converse KAHNvers- the opposite; kunVERS- to talk (1c)

Convict kunVIKT- to find guilty; KAHNvikt- a prisoner (1)

Crooked KROOKt- to bend your neck; KROOK-ed- having a curve (3)

Deliberate diLIBerit- carefully considered; diLIBerATE- to consider (12)

Desert dihZURT- to leave ; DEZert- arid region (18, and below)

Digest DYEjest- collection of published material; dieJEST- absorb nutrients (6)

Do DOO- to accomplish; DOE- a musical note (1)

Does DUZ- performs; DOZE- more than one female deer (1)

Dove DUV- a bird; DOEV- jumped off (1)

Drawer DROR- the compartment you pull out from the dresser; DRAWer- one who draws (1j)

Excuse EKskyooz- to let someone off; EKskyoos- a reason or explanation (17)

House HAUS- a building that serves as living quarters; HOWZ- to provide with living quarters (10)

Incense INsens- burnt aromatic; inSENS- to make angry (9)

Intern INtern- a physician in training; inTERN- confine to prescribed area (14)

Invalid inVALLid- not valid; INvallid- an ill person (1)

Laminate LAMinate- to construct by adding layers; LAMinit [although both pronunciations are listed]- the cover itself (1)

Lather (rhymes with rather)- foam or suds; (rhymes with bath fur)- a worker who installs lath (lattice work) (15)

Lead LEED- to guide; LED- a metallic element (1)

Minute MINNit- 60 seconds; myNOOT- tiny (1)

Moderate MODerit- keeping within reason; MODerATE- to preside over (1)

Mow MOH- to cut grass; MAU- a pile of hay (17)

Multiply MULLtihPLIE- multiply two numbers; MULLtihplee- in a multiple manner (15)

Number NUMber- one, two, three �; NUMMER- more numb [many dictionaries do not list this use, which suggests that "more numb" is preferred; however, the listed use is given in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition, Electronic version.] (18)

Nun NUN- women in religious order; NOON- 14th letter in Hebrew alphabet (9)

Object ubJEKT- to complain; AHBjekt- a thing (1c)

Pasty PAstee- like glue; PASStee- a meat pie (1)

Pate PAIT- a bald head; paTAY- a minced food; PAHT- a porcelain paste [diacritics in pâté and pâte don't count!](1)

Perfect PERfekt- exactly correct; perFEKT- to make correct (17)

Periodic PEEReeODDik- occasional; PUREeyeODDik- an iodine compound (15)

Permit perMIT- to allow some event to occur; PERmit [although both pronunciations are listed]- a document giving permission (8)

Polish POElish- from Poland; PAHLish- shine [capitalization doesn't count!](4)

Present PREZent- a gift; preeSENT- to give a talk (9)

Primer PRIHMer- an elementary book; PRYmer- the preparatory coat of paint (1c, 12)

Produce PROdoos- vegetables; proDOOS- bring forth (1)

Project proJEKT- to show a movie; PRAHjekt- a task (1)

Pussy PUHSee- having pus; POOHSee; a kitten (18)

Raven RAYven- black bird; RAVen- hungry (9)

Rebel REBBell- a resister; rihBELL- to resist (2)

Record RECKord- a list; reKORD- to write down (1)

Recreation rek-ree-Ashun- pastime; REEcreeAshun- remake (also, recreate) (12)

Refuse reFUSE- to deny; REFFyoos- garbage (1)

Relay reeLAY- to put it down again, such as a carpet; REElay- a race by teams; rihLAY- to pass along, such as information [One of our dictionaries gives these pronunciations, but does not distinguish meanings among the latter two. The pronunciation may vary among individuals.] (12)

Rerun reRUN- to race again or to repeat a show on television; RErun- a repeated TV show (12)

Reside: reZIDE- to stay put; RE-SYD- [Slang] to change places (change teams) [usu. hyphenated as re-side] (20) [N.B.: This is also a antagonym!] {X}

Resign reZYN- to quit; reSYN- to sign again (e.g., a contract) [usu. hyphenated as re-sign] (20) [N.B.: This word is also an antagonym!]

Resume reeZOOM- to restart; REHZoomay- a document of experience [also résumé; diacritics don't count!] (1)

Row ROH- a line; ROUW- a fight (1)

Sake SAHkey- alcoholic drink; SAYK- a purpose (5)

Secrete seeKREET- to discharge; sehKRET- an armored skullcap [secrí¨te, diacritics don't count!]

Secreted seeKREETed- having put out; SEEkrehted- placed out of sight (9) [N.B.: This word is also an antagonym!]

Separate SEPerATE- to divide into groups; SEPret- not joined together (17)

Sewer SOwer- one who sews; SOOwer- place for human waste (9)

Slough SLUFF- the outer layer of skin of a snake; [rhymes with OW!]- a hole of deep mud or mire; SLOO- a marshy pond (19)

Sow SOUW- a pig; SO- to plant seed (1)

Subject SUBjekt- the theme; subJEKT- to force upon someone (12)

Tear TARE- to rip; TEER- fluid in eye (1)

Wind WHINEd- to coil up; WINd- the blowing air (1)

Wound WOOND- to injure; WOWND- coiled up (1)

Heteronymic Sentences

Mary & Harry Baldwin of San Diego (12) are collectors of heteronyms. When they find a word, they compose a sentence that uses the different meanings. For example:

  • When the brush fire was close, the authorities had to close the road.
  • I subject my friends to pain when I discuss the subject of my operation.

The Baldwins found an article in the Smithsonian Magazine (vol. 19, p. 244, November 1988) by Felicia Lamport entitled "The bass swam around the bass drum on the ocean floor" in which heteronyms are the subject. One nice example: "She wished she could desert him in the desert." Although not known for word games, the website of the Smithsonian Magazine is provided here for your convenience. (Note: The referenced article is not available through the Smithsonian website but there is a link for it here.)

Heteronyms with highly related meanings

Some heteronyms are so closely related that we have decided to give them a separate list. For example:

Live LIHV- [verb] to be alive; LIEV- [adjective] alive [The two meanings of this heteronym couldn't be much closer to each other!] (16)

Others include:

Access (some people pronounce the "a" differently for the noun and verb) (1)

Read (9,17)

Use (17)

�© Ellis

affect (verb)/effect (verb)
Affect means to have an impact or influence on something:
Itching powder, when used as an offensive weapon, affects your enemy's ability to fight back.
Effect means to cause something to come to pass:
The victory was effected by throwing itching powder over the enemy.
bare (verb)/bear (verb)
To bare something is to strip it of its covering:
The winds of autumn swiftly bared the trees, and the trees were most embarrassed.
Bear means to carry (a physical burden) or to endure (a metaphorical one):
Sam longed for adventure, unable to bear the dullness of her hometown.
breath (noun)/breathe (verb)
Often thought of as interchangeable, these are actually different parts of speech. You breathe in; you take a breath.
complement (verb)/compliment (verb)
If two things complement one another, they fit harmoniously and give each other mutual support:
An illustration of a forest glade complements a fairytale much better than an illustration of a septic tank.
If two things compliment one another, they tell each other flattering things:
Eric complimented the frogs on their cooking, giving particular praise to the water-lily jellies.
council (noun)/counsel (noun)
A council is a body of people that meets to discuss issues and give advice. Counsel is advice itself.
flair (noun)/flare (noun)
Flair means aptitude, creativity, verve:
The room had been decorated with artistic flair.
A flare is a burst of light:
Three flares were released as a distress signal.
grisly (adjective)/grizzly (adjective)
A bear is grizzly; blood, brains, instruments of torture and so on are grisly.
hoard (noun)/horde (noun)
A hoard is a stash of something valuable:
For fifty years the dragon had slept on its hoard of treasure.
A horde is a large, moving group of people or creatures:
The hordes of the Dark Lord swept all before them.
its/it's
It's (with the apostrophe) is a contraction of "it is":
It's really bad this time!
Its (no apostrophe) is the possessive determiner meaning "that which belongs to it":
The black magician's cat went in fear of its nine lives.
loath (adjective)/loathe (verb)
Loath (no "e") means extremely unwilling:
Tom was loath to give money to his shiftless nephew.
To loathe means to detest:
The boy had loathed cabbage since his schooldays.
loose (verb)/lose (verb)
Loose means to unfasten, let go:
Albert loosed his dog, but the dog ignored the burglars and attacked a portrait of Albert's mother.
Lose means to mislay something or to have something pass permanently away:
People lose much valuable time by daydreaming when they should be working.
pore (verb)/pour (verb)
To pore (usually followed by over) is to study something with great concentration:
I pored over the book until I knew it backwards, sideways and upside-down.
To pour is to transfer liquid from a container:
Captain Hardbrace poured lemonade and the crew toasted the success of the expedition.
reign (noun/verb)/rein (noun/verb)
Reign, as a verb, is what a king or other all-powerful figure does. As a noun, it refers to the period of a monarch's rule.
E.g. The reign of Edward the Third lasted fifty years.
Rein, as a verb (usually followed by in) means to pull back, bring under control ("rein in one's temper"). The noun rein (usually plural) means the strap(s) used to control a horse.
role (noun)/roll (noun)
One's function in life or part in the theatre is a role ("the role of Hamlet"). A roll is a gymnastic stunt or a round piece of bread.
sight (noun)/site (noun)
A sight is an image received via the eyes (or the visual sense itself):
On clear evenings the stars were a magnificent sight.
A site is a location, generally one where something is happening or is being built:
Spectators gathered at the site of the alien landing.
The hot new Internet site crashed in the first five minutes.
tail (noun)/tale (noun)
A tail is the body part that adorns the rears of dogs, horses, dragons etc., useful for swatting flies or wagging.
A tale is a narrative story:
The companions told tales of horror around the fire.
to (preposition)/too (adverb)
To (that's the one with just one "o") is used to indicate direction of movement or an object being considered or compared. E.g. "go to", "give to", "all Greek to me".
Too indicates an excessive quantity or quality:
The room was too dark because there were too few windows.
Or has the same meaning as also:
Mary had come along, too.
exercicios
exc exc exc exc fla fla fla exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc 1 exc exc exc exc exc exc exc fla exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc 2 exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc 3 fla fla exc exc exc exc exc exc exc exc off off off off off off off 4 off off

RIDDLES

Riddles are very useful to learn a language. Many of them are the same in other languages but others are specially British or American. Many of them play with words, meanings and similar sounds. Try to guess the answer to these riddles without translating them!

Why was Cinderella taken off the basketball team?
She always ran away from the ball.

What is the difference between a jeweller and a jailer?
One sells watches and the other one watches cells.

What do you call a deer with no eyes?
No idea. (No-eye deer).

What goes dot-dash-squeak-dash-dot-squeak-squeak?
Mouse code.

Why do bees always have sticky hair?
Because they have honeycombs.

What is at the end of everything?
The letter G.

What starts with "t", ends with "t" and is full of "t"?
A teapot.

What starts with "e", ends with "e" but only has one letter?
An envelope.

If you drop a white hat into the Red Sea, what does it become?
Wet.

Why are pianos difficult to open?
Because the keys are inside.

How do you stop a cock from crowing on Sunday
morning and waking you up?
Have it for dinner on Saturday night.

What bone will a dog never eat?
A trombone.

Why are Saturdays and Sundays strong days?
Because the other five are weak days.

When is a door not a door?
When it's ajar. ("ajar" significa entornada)

What kind of animal can jump higher than a house?
All animals can jump. House cannot.

What do you serve that you cannot eat?
A tennis ball.

What do you call a great dog detective?
Sherlock Bones.

How can you tell if someone is jealous of the Irish?
They are green with envy.

How does Easter end?
With the letter R.

What do you call a fish without an eye?
A fsh.

What do sea monsters eat?
Fish and ships.


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Graduado em Informática com Ênfase em Gestão de Negócios na FATEC/ZL e não em Letras (que pena!).

Amante da Língua Inglesa e Interessado em entrar na Jerusalém Celestial e ver um mundo com Tradução Automática.


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