Subordinate Conjunctions

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Subordinate Conjunctions
    1. because:  As he is my friend, I will help him.
    2. when:  We watched as the plane took off.

    1. later in time:  After the train left, we went home.

Although or though
    1. in spite of the fact that:  Although it was after midnight, we did not feel tired.

    1. earlier than:  I arrived before the stores were open.

    1. for the reason that:  We had to wait, because we arrived early.

    1. for, because:  He is happy, for he enjoys his work.

    1. on condition that:  If she is here, we will see her.

    1. for fear that:  I watched closely, lest he make a mistake.
Note the use of the Subjunctive Mood in the clause with lest.

Providing or provided (contanto que)
    1. on condition that:  All will be well, providing you are careful.

    1. from a past time:  I have been here since the sun rose.
    2. as, because:  Since you are here, you can help me.

So or so that
    1. consequently:  It was raining, so we did not go out.
    2. in order that:  I am saving money so I can buy a bicycle.
Note: When used with the meaning in order that, so is usually followed by that in formal English.
e.g. I am saving money so that I can buy a bicycle.

    1. if:  Supposing that happens, what will you do?

    1. used in comparisons:  He is taller than you are.

    1. except when, if not:  Unless he helps us, we cannot succeed.

Until or till
    1. up to the time when:  I will wait until I hear from you.

    1. because:  Whereas this is a public building, it is open to everyone.
    2. on the other hand:  He is short, whereas you are tall.

    1. if:  I do not know whether she was invited.

    1. at the time when:  While it was snowing, we played cards.
    2. on the other hand:  He is rich, while his friend is poor.
    3. although:  While I am not an expert, I will do my best.

In addition, the following phrases are often used at the beginning of subordinate clauses.

As if
    1. in a similar way:  She talks as if she knows everything.

As long as
    1. if:  As long as we cooperate, we can finish the work easily.
    2. while:  He has lived there as long as I have known him.

As soon as
    1. immediately when:  Write to me as soon as you can.

As though
    1. in a similar way:  It looks as though there will be a storm.

Even if
    1. in spite of a possibility:  I am going out even if it rains.

In case
    1. because of a possibility:  Take a sweater in case it gets cold.

Or else
    1. otherwise:  Please be careful, or else you may have an accident.

So as to
    1. in order to:  I hurried so as to be on time.


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0 #4 Subordinate ConjunctionsFlorentina 02-10-2017 17:16
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